Even if the infraction is less serious than repeated abuse, the violation can be used to restart the treatment clock. Wil Avery noted that this approach is so effective that group leaders are sometimes unaware of who is illiterate until the program evaluation is completed at the end of the course. However, batterer intervention programs that focus on the values, belief systems, and experiences of Western, middle-class, white culture will be of little use among many minority clients Healey et al. This flexibility allows more than a dozen programs of varying sizes and theoretical approaches to provide services to cities like Seattle and Denver. Create a system to gather complete defendant information for prosecutors and judges, including previous arrests and convictions for both domestic violence and other crimes , substance abuse, child welfare contacts, and victim information. Changing the inner person and prescribing medication to alter behavior may be considered by some to be beyond the scope of a criminal justice intervention.
The following section outlines the basic tenets of each theory, illustrates how these assumptions influence the choice of intervention strategies, and notes the advantages and disadvantages of each theoretical and treatment approach. At the same time, the question of how to evaluate batterer interventions may need to be reframed to include the broader context of criminal justice support. Department of Justice, office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Batterers who do not comply with the abstinence rule are placed in special groups for substance-abusing batterers. The results showed no difference between the brief and intense programs, except for the few men of color who were less likely to recidivate if they completed the long program; the structured feminist educational model was found to be most effective.
Gondolf found that some men entered programs two years after arrest. A therapist may work with an individual to help them discover and understand what causes their need to control and abuse their partners, and it can help perpetrators of violence realize the serious nature of their actions and work to stop the abusive behavior. To be considered effective, the program must stop the battering and keep offenders from battering again for at least one year. Braithwaite provides considerable empirical evidence indicating high levels of victim satisfaction; this process leaves victims feeling empowered by their participation in the conference. Abuser Types Research has increasingly focused on differing types of male batterers. The curriculum is taught in classes that emphasize the development of critical thinking skills around eight themes: 1 nonviolence, 2 nonthreatening behavior, 3 respect, 4 support and trust, 5 honesty and accountability, 6 sexual respect, 7 partnership, and 8 negotiation and fairness.
This program is for men who have a violence problem, not a legal problem. Nearly all 89 percent indicated that programs should have no contact with the partners of participants except when such contact is required by duty to warn. The Duluth model which incorporates the curriculum emphasizes that batterer intervention must take place in the context of a coordinated community response to domestic violence. Males are responsible for earning money to support the family, but they also have decision-making authority and it is often viewed as acceptable for them use physical force to discipline disobedient partners and correct unsatisfactory performance of household duties Sugarman and Frankel, 1996; Healey et al. After four or five months of group therapy, assuming the client has been actively engaged in reflecting on his patterns of abuse and in practicing anger management techniques, his cognitive distortions begin to decline and his denial breaks down. To the batterer, women are childlike and incompetent.
The defendant can also have the case set for trial. Paymar, Education Groups for Men Who Batter: The Duluth Model. Higher external end scores correlated with apathy, depression, and feelings of powerlessness regarding environmental factors. Finkelhor, Hotaling, and Yllö 1988 suggest that prevention of intimate partner violence would be greatly improved if individuals who are at risk of becoming domestic violence perpetrators could be identified and treated earlier. See Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz, Behind Closed Doors. Criticism of Batterer Intervention Programs One issue that batterer intervention programs must consider is how to best serve the perpetrators of violence while still protecting the victims. Both of these issues require attention throughout the treatment process Williams and Becker 1994.
Stosny reports a program completion rate of 77 percent. Each report presents the program options and management issues in a topic area, based on a review of research and evaluation findings, operational experience, and expert opinion on the subject. Journal of Family Violence, 16, 385- 400. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Violence Between Intimates. Government Publications Related to Domestic Violence Bureau of Justice Statistics. Other rules may prohibit sexist or degrading language and insulting or intimidating counselors or other group members, and require waiting in turn to speak. If the batterer refuses to admit wrongdoing, or shows patterns of disruptive or resistant behavior during class, he is usually dropped from the program at that point.
The Asian culture believes that talking to someone outside the family about private matters shames the family. The feminist educational view is that consequences are appropriate. Instead, they have integrated social explanations with psychological explanations. Typically, the person taking the turn describes the recent conflict or incident in detail, focusing on his thoughts, feelings, and actions. In addition, a new theory of the origins of battering has been advanced, together with an unconventional treatment approach. New York: Academic Press, 1972.
. Victim advocates note that mistaken identification of the primary aggressor may occur at the scene because bruises caused by battering may take hours to appear, whereas some signs of defensive violence, such as scratching or biting, are immediately apparent. On average, batterer intervention programs surveyed for this report estimated that 80 percent of their referrals were court-man- dated. Physical abuse may include any unwanted physical behavior against a partner, such as pushing or shoving, throwing objects, hitting or beating, choking, burning, using a weapon, or restraining the partner from leaving. Culturally focused interventions pay deliberate attention to the historical or contemporary experiences of a particular cultural or racial group.
As will be seen in the following chapters, however, theoretical compatibility with the criminal justice system is not the only important factor in selecting a batterer intervention. Two forms of batterer intervention have evolved from this perspective: individual and group psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Group treatment program for abusive husbands: Long term evaluation. The family systems model of intervention focuses on developing healthy communication skills with a goal of family preservation and may use couples therapy, a treatment approach prohibited by 20 State standards and guidelines regulating batterer intervention to protect the safety of the victim. Of particular concern to both feminist and cognitive-behavioral proponents is the format of couples counseling: encouraging each partner to discuss problems openly with the other partner can put the victim at risk after the session if the woman expresses complaints. In fact, diversity is a plus because the topic has nothing to do with socioeconomic or race issues.