Shvetashvatara Upanishad The last of three epilogue verses of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, 6. This interaction between the twois believed to have led to the creation of a medieval mysticism which was independent of sectarian or orthodox practices and disclaimed particularly caste practices and atrocities. By the 12 th century A. The movement has traditionally been considered as an influential social reformation in Hinduism, and provided an individual-focussed alternative path to spirituality regardless of one's caste of birth or gender. These poet-saints championed a wide range of philosophical positions within their society, ranging from theistic of to absolute of Vedanta. The character of the age revealed itself for the growth of Bhakti movement. Islam came with simple doctrine of brotherhood, equality and oneness of God.
To be a Hindu meant that one's life was goveorned by factors such as being born in a caste, being subject to ones' actions or karma, to be a part of Brahman and aim at achieving moksha or Liberation of ones soul or salvation. Her songs are very popular all over India. So the next alternative was Bhakti marga—a simple way of devotion to get salvation from worldly life. His other works are Vinaya-Patrika and Kavitavali. While he believed in Vaishnava Bhakti, he also believed in Nirguna brahman. At the same time as Kabir we have, the contribution of Guru Nanak of Punjab 1469-1538.
It is the part of the great Ganges plains. The teachings acted as a healing balm to the suppressed classes. A respectable woman is not, for instance, allowed to live by herself or outdoors, or refuse sex to her husband- but women saints wander and travel alone, give up husband, children and family. These two sects of bhakti saints carried the tradition until around 10th century. We are all familiar with the 'Urs' at his dargah in A-jmer, to which flocks of followers come, treating it as a major pilgrimage centre even today. They range from 7th to 9th century, with Muslim traders settling in coastal regions of Indian peninsula, to Muslims seeking asylum in Tamil Nadu, to raids in northwest India by.
They carried their message of love and devotion to various parts of South India through the medium of the local language. It spread into India in the 11 th century but had origin in Persia. It was to remove such evils, religious leaders appeared in different parts of India. With supreme devotion to the Almighty one could realize Him. They broke all societal rules and stereotypes, and lived their lives as they pleased.
He believed that bhakti provided alternate avenue of worship to the Sudras. Kabir : Kabir was an ardent disciple of Ramananda. Basava : Basava lived in Karnataka. The Bhakti saints were social reformers also. Even though we have stressed that the caste system was a system that formed the basis of life in Hindu India and was rigid and unchangeable, there nevertheless occurred many anti-caste movements in the course of the development of the religion.
The dancers were deva-dasis female slaves of the deity inside the temple, but nagar-badhus public wives outside. The evils of caste system, the unnecessary ritualism and Brahmanical orthodoxy of Hinduism received a setback due to the powerful voices of eminent socio-religious reformers during the movement. The status of women received more importance. The spirit of tolerance, harmony and mutual respect which was inaugurated by the Bhakti saints had another everlasting impact — the emergence of a new cult of worship by both Hindus and Muslims. He composed beautiful hymns in Marathi. At a time where most spaces were restricted to women, they embraced Bhakti to define their own truths to reform society, polity, relationships and religions. Raw emotion or bhava is transformed in drama to a refined mood or rasa.
It is the same God, but is viewed from two perspectives. There was an absolute need to change the existing system as well as bring radical changes in the fabric of Hindu beliefs. A great proponent of loving devotion for God, bhakti yoga, Chaitanya worshiped the Lord in the form of Krishna. This is in the context of hagiographic writing about the bhakti saints. Right from the beginning there was a hiatus between the ulemas and the mystics.
He preached the Unity of God and condemned idolatry. In the 19th century Karnataka, Shishunala Sharif 1819-89 was an influential figure. Its simple doctrine challenged the social pattern of society and most important result of this was emergence of Bhakti movement and Sufi Movement. He was an ardent worshipper of Rama. The other prominent feature of Bhakti movement was its emphasis on Bhakti or devotion to God as the only means to achieve salvation. It is therefore blasphemous to renounce it in quest of God. Thus although Sikhs revere saints such as Bhagat Namdev, Bhagat Kabir and Sheikh Farid, but the ultimate Guru or teacher of a Sikh is Guru Granth Sahib which include about 10% of the verses of these Saints.