Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod iam amplius expectes, si neque nox tenebris obscurare coetus nefarios nec privata domus parietibus continere voces coniurationis tuae potest, si illustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? For almost every man covered with his body, when life was gone, the position which he had taken when alive at the beginning of the conflict. There was apparently substantial evidence that he had bribed numerous senators to vote for him and engaged in other unethical conduct related to the election such behaviour was, however, hardly unknown in the late Republic. He was defeated by two other candidates, and , ultimately crushing his political ambitions. News arrived that slaves were revolting in Capua in Campania, see map and Apulia. Et si me meis civibus iniuria suspectum tam graviter atque offensum viderem, carere me aspectu civium quam infestis omnium oculis conspici mallem: tu, cum conscientia scelerum tuorum agnoscas odium omnium iustum et iam diu tibi debitum, dubitas quorum mentes sensusque vulneras, eorum aspectum praesentiamque vitare? Si te iam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici iussero, credo, erit verendum mihi, ne non potius hoc omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat.
Can it be that you feel no reverence at all for her authority, or deference to her judgement - or, for that matter, fear of her strong hand? What shall I say of your having given yourself into custody? And shall we, who are the consuls, tolerate Catiline, openly desirous to destroy the whole world with fire and slaughter? By using historical analogy, then, Cicero is exploiting this reverence for the past for his own political purposes in the present. But on the 6 of November Catiline announced plans to leave the city to take control of the revolt. In response to Catiline's behavior, the Senate issued a , a declaration of. Now, in your career, you have had nothing but your own deeds to recommend you. For example, Julius Caesar argued that exile and disenfranchisement would be sufficient punishment for the conspirators, and one of the accused, Lentulus, was a praetor. Two Roman knights were found to deliver you from this anxiety, and to promise that very night, before daybreak, to slay me in my bed.
They can also refer to no individual in particular, but rather refer to broader or more abstract dangers so as to be used as a rhetorical device. What is the matter, Catiline? He takes a part in the public deliberations; he is watching and marking down and checking off for slaughter every individual among us. The Allobroges thought better of allying themselves with the Roman traitors and reported the proposal and other details of the conspiracy to their Roman , who, in turn, reported to Cicero. Leave the city at least; the gates are open; depart. I discovered all of these things with your meeting truly only just dismissed, I fortified and strengthened my house with greater garrisons, I shut out the wretches who you sent to greet me in the morning, when they themselves had come, I had often foretold to many fine and upstanding men that at that time these men would approach me.
Later, these factors would dramatically shape Catiline's ambitions and goals as he would desire above all else to restore the political heritage of his family along with its financial power. No, it fills your heart with a kind of 'unimaginable delight. You do nothing, you plan nothing, you think of nothing which I not only do not hear, but which I do not see and know every particular of. I pass over the ruin of your fortune, which you know is hanging over you against the ides of the very next month; I come to those things which relate not to the infamy of your private vices, not to your domestic difficulties and baseness, but to the welfare of the republic and to the lives and safety of us all. I chose this document for a number of reasons. Unlike most Roman generals of the late republic, Catiline offered himself to his followers both as a general and as a soldier on the front lines.
Had I punished Catilina, their influence would cause many persons, some of them malignant but others merely ignorant, to say that I had acted with tyrannical brutality. At this point, under the auspices of the lex Plautia de vi, Cicero ordered the indictment of Catiline, which was filed by Lucius Aemilius Paulus. If there is reason for my alarm, your departure will save me from destruction - and even if it is baseless, once you are away I shall at long last be freed from my fears. Quid exspectas auctoritatem loquentium, quorum voluntatem tacitorum perspicis? Unlike most Roman generals of the late republic, Catiline offered himself to his followers both as a general and as a soldier on the front lines. But somehow or other it was reserved for my consulship to witness all these incurable manias and outrages and horrors coming to a head and breaking out into open view.
Cicero, who was consul that year, exposed the plot and documented his defeat of the conspiracy in his Orations Against Catiline. Not only did you never desire quiet, but you never even desired any war but a criminal one; you have collected a band of profligates and worthless men, abandoned not only by all fortune but even by hope. You do nothing, you plan nothing, you think of nothing which I not only do not hear, but which I do not see and know every particular of. How long is that madness of yours still to mock us? But the safety of the commonwealth must not be too often allowed to be risked on one man. Do not you think you should leave the city? For almost every man covered with his body, when life was gone, the position which he had taken when alive at the beginning of the conflict. Habemus senatus consultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et grave, non deest rei publicae consilium neque auctoritas huius ordinis; nos, nos, dico aperte, consules desumus. You had got together a group determined to strike down the leading men of the state, including the two consuls themselves; and what prevented this mad crime from being carried out was no sanity or nervousness of yours, but the good fortune that favours the people of Rome.
When, O Catiline, do you mean to cease abusing our patience? Contents: Cicero's Catilinarian Orations and Commentary -- Text of Cicero's Catilinarian Orations -- Notes to the Commentary -- From the Gracchi to Sulla: Background to the Conspiracy -- The Catilinarian Conspiracy in Context -- The Roman Republican Constitution. There wasthere was once such virtue in this republic that brave men would repress mischievous citizens with severer chastisement than the most bitter enemy. Professors can assign any of the Catilinarian Orations independently or assign excerpts from several of the speeches. I am able to report how on that night you came into Scythe-makers' Street I will be perfectly specific and entered the home of Marcus Laeca: and many of your accomplices in this lunatic, criminal enterprise joined you there. Cum proximis comitiis consularibus me consulem in campo et competitores tuos interficere voluisti, compressi conatus tuos nefarios amicorum praesidio et copiis nullo tumultu publice concitato; denique, quotienscumque me petisti, per me tibi obstiti, quamquam videbam perniciem meam cum magna calamitate rei publicae esse coniunctam. And the men made their appearance at the very hour I had indicated.
Then do you, O Jupiter, who were consecrated by Romulus with the same auspices as this city, whom we rightly call the stay of this city and empire, repel this man and his companions from your altars and from the other temples,from the houses and walls of the city,from the lives and fortunes of all the citizens; and overwhelm all the enemies of good men, the foes of the republic, the robbers of Italy, men bound together by a treaty and infamous alliance of crimes, dead and alive, with eternal punishments. But now it is different: for now you are openly attacking our whole existence, and calling down destruction and devastation upon the temples of the immortal gods, the habitations of our city, the lives of every citizen, and Italy in all its parts. How long is that madness of yours still to mock us? The Allobroges thought better of allying themselves with the Roman traitors and reported the proposal and other details of the conspiracy to their Roman , who, in turn, reported to Cicero. While upholding Roman values won an individual prestige and support, disregarding or going against those values earned an individual disrepute and punishment. When is there to be an end of that unbridled audacity of yours, swaggering about as it does now? You live,and you live, not to lay aside, but to persist in your audacity.