# Chapter 13 experiments and observational studies. AP Statistics Chapter 13 2019-02-28

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## Chapter 13 Experiments and Observational Studies Flashcards

Known variables are handled through direct manipulation e. When neither the subject, nor those who take the measurements know which treatment was applied, then the experiment is double-blind. Use randomization to reduce variation from unknown sources. Realism In an experiment, we change something. I hope he has enough greenhouses to do this! There would be six treatmentsâ€”60rpm and 1 minute; 60rpm and 2 minutes; 120rpm and 1 minute; 120rpm and 2 minutes; 240rpm and 1 minute; 240rpm and 2 minutes. I need to make sure that the driver is unaware of the gasoline type used in the car for each test run.

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## Chapter 13

Assume that there are 50 volunteers available for this study, a force meter is available to measure grip, and one really enthusiastic cheerleader for encouragement. Dosage mg of a certain drug? Use controls to reduce variation from known sources. The final three cars will be driven with premium gasoline. A placebo is anything which has a known or no effect on the response variable. The word placebo refers to a sugar pill, but a placebo does not need to be a pill! This is why you must replicate the experiment on multiple subjects.

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## Chapter 13

Identify the explanatory and response variables, number of levels of all factors, and the total number of treatments. If you don't block your subjects into groups, then you might give one particular treatment to the same type of subject which could give you misleading results. . Many people sub-classify extraneous variablesâ€¦they talk about lurking variables and confounding variables. The big idea in an experiment is to make a change to one variable introduce variation and observe any changes in the other variable measure variation. Randomized Block Design In this design, subjects are first blocked by some variable, then assigned treatments randomly within each block. Because no treatments are deliberately applied, a prospective study is not an experiment.

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## Chapter 13

Pain level was measured using the standard Visual Analog Scale pain level is measured between 0 and 10. It is important that similar individuals are in each group. When conducting this experiment, we might show people advertising with subliminal messages, and then show some other people advertising without the subliminal messages. Thus, we need to conduct comparative experiments, where we compare results of several treatments that are given under similar conditions. There is only one factor gasoline type with three levels. Block to reduce the effects of identifiable attributes of the subjects that cannot be controlled.

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## Chapter 13

Simulations can show what might occur, surveys show the opinions or preferences of people, and observational studies can show relationships between variables. Block Designs Extraneous variables that are known need to be controlled. Replicate over as many subjects as possible. Put all 50 cards back into the box and mix again. Control them when you can. At the conclusion of the experiment, a local florist will evaluate the quality of all of the flowers.

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## Chapter 13

If, as often happens, the subjects of the experiment are not a representative sample from the population of interest, replicate the entire study with a different group of subjects, preferable from a different part of the population. The best way to do that isâ€¦ Randomization â€¦to randomly assign individuals to these groups! Randomize subjects to treatments to even out effects that we cannot control. The consumer group has purchased nine of these vehicles for testing. Use randomization to reduce chance variation. You could have any number of variables, but they fall into three types: explanatory, response, and extraneous. Results for a single subject are just anec- dotes.

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## Chapter 13 Experiments and Observational Studies Flashcards

Thus, it is important that the subjects do not know what kind of treatment has been received. Identify the explanatory and response variables, number of levels of all factors, and the total number of treatments. The ads with subliminals are an actual treatment; the ads without them are a placebo. If the patient did not return if the condition improved , then all was wellâ€”either the condition improved on its own, or it never really existed psychosomatic. In other words, randomization will spread out any extraneous variation amongst the groupsâ€”thus, reducing between-group variation. The response variable is pain level.

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## AP Statistics Chapter 13

It is also important for the person taking the measurements not to know what kind of treatment the subjects receivedâ€”otherwise, there may be some hidden bias. If, as often happens, the subjects of the experiment are not a representative sample from the population of interest, replicate the entire study with a different group of subjects, preferably from a different part of the population. The other 25 people will do the opposite no encouragement, then encouragement. Nevertheless, prospective studies typically focus on estimating differences among groups that might appear as the groups are followed during the course of the study. For exampleâ€”does advertising with subliminal messages cause people to have a higher opinion of certain products? This is one variable Dosage with three levels 50, 100, 150. There are three explanatory variables: location, volume, and speed.

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