Rowling shows her readers the dangers of creating such categorizations within society. Often binary systems are created out of a sense of fear; one group fears another group because it is different and views that difference as a threat. They have to be seen in context of larger structures. However, by the late 1960s, many of structuralism's basic tenets came under attack from a new wave of predominantly French intellectuals such as the philosopher and historian Michel Foucault, the philosopher and social commentator Jacques Derrida, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, and the literary critic Roland Barthes. Judging a poem by Keats on the basis of linguistic theory would be nothing less than an extradition of poetry! The theme of history in modern thought can be linked to such influences as , 's and 's. But the reason why poststructuralists are in the literary theory business at all is that they see writing, not speech, as more faithful to the metaphysics of true expression.
As a result of these criticisms, some of the excesses of post-structuralism and deconstruction are now over. It has much to do with anthropology, sociology, history and philosophy as well. Thus, structuralism entered the literary scene with bags and baggage. Another example would be an apple. However, it did not only enter into the sphere of literature, it changed the very popular notion that every piece of literature reflects the reality of society. And further, these contradictions are not something which can be corrected, as if the author had errors in an argument which, once corrected, could produce a better argument, no — rather the contradictions were conditions of the system of thought existing in the first place! The simple answer is that many of the theories that came after structuralism first developed as critiques of structuralism. This is a textual phenomenon.
The study of the construction of meaning in texts, as for instance through tropes, through repetitions with difference. Post-structuralism moved beyond this, questioning the very notions of Truth, Reality, Meaning, Sincerity, Good etc. We try to separate ourselves from the evil because we fear it, but the potential for it exists in human nature, even if not always active. Semiotext e Foreign Agents ser. Some post-structural theorists, Fish for instance, hold that the reader constructs the text entirely, through the conventions of reading of her interpretive community.
Both, however, exist in one man's body and struggle against each other. A writer does not wield language; he is subsumed in it. Where the structuralists constructed a system, a structure, Derrida deconstructs it, that is, he takes it apart. One convention of literature is that there is a persona who is articulating the text — that it comes from some organizing consciousness which can be commented on and described. The study of the basic codes which make narrative possible, and which make it work.
Thus any work becomes the parole, the individual articulation, of a cultural langue, or system of signification. Structuralism proposes that one may understand human by means of a —modeled on language i. Something's cooked because it's not raw. Structuralism in the 60s was at least in part an intellectual programme, and it was possible to analyse phenomena by treating them as being parts of a system. I would like to go with the Peter Barry version because I believe he has the best opinions and facts at times.
The radical political groups from the 60s for example the Maoists were coming to an ideological dead-end. In sociology, anthropology and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that tells that the elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. One can find dozens of books of literary theory bogged down in signifiers and signifieds, but only a handful that refers to. Another goal is to find how these experiences correlate to physical events. Anthropology, among other fields, is revolutionized through ethnography; qualitative rather than quantitative study becomes more and more the norm in many areas of social science. Barthes exposes how this structuralist system is regressive; orders of language rely upon a metalanguage by which it is explained, and therefore itself is in danger of becoming a metalanguage, thus exposing all languages and discourse to scrutiny.
The main philosopher for the poststructuralists was the nineteenth century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, whose main thought began with the realisation that if God is dead, anything is possible — everything is permitted, everything is relative. Post-structuralism is really a cultural movement more than an intellectual movement. If you're a theorist, then you should extra care about structuralism. The unconscious itself is not some strange, impenetrable realm of private meaning but is constructed through the sign-systems and through the repressions of the culture. Hence literary textuality is complexly meaningful. There is what might be called the natural attitude to the artificial, where the text explicitly cites and exposes vraisemblance of the kind directly above, so as to reinforce its own authority.
The narrator may claim that he is intentionally violating the conventions of a story, for instance, that he knows that this is not the way it should be done according to the conventions, but that the way he is doing it serves some higher or more substantial purpose — the appeal is to a greater naturalness or a higher intelligibility. Authors may explore the gray area between the two groups and what can result from those perceived differences. The self is, like other things, signified and culturally constructed. Deconstruction Moving on from the structuralists we come to Derrida and deconstruction. From this basic distinction, Post-structuralist studies often emphasize history to analyze descriptive concepts. The theory of binaries and binary opposition is often used in literature to explore the gray area between the two extremes and the consequences of placing things or groups of people in separate categories.
And I tried not to be too much into the practical application of the theory on example texts. Los Angeles and New York: Semiotext e , 2004. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Structuralism, in other words, gives you a blueprint that you can redraw to map onto whatever you want. For most of the students and their teachers, the school opened with Ferdinand de Saussure. Through structuralism, literature is seen as a whole: it functions as a system of meaning and reference no matter how many works there are, two or two thousand. The structuralists who were influenced by Saussure took that deep structure idea even deeper: If underlying patterns or structures govern language they said , doesn't that mean that underlying patterns or structures shape all human experience? French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss was arguably the first such scholar, sparking a widespread interest in structuralism.