The intervention of the British in social traditions by prohibiting the practice of Sati in 1829, passing laws relating to succession of property in 1832 and 1856, Widow Remarriage Act in 1856 and the Religious Disabilities Act of 1856 further strengthened the view of the conservatives that the Hindu religion and customs were being tampered by the British with the specific objective of Christianizing India. The annexation of Awadh inflamed their strong feelings against foreign rule. Their Colonel confronted them supported by artillery and cavalry on the parade ground, but after some negotiation withdrew the artillery, and cancelled the next morning's parade. Discouragement towards Social Reforms The British realized that one of the was their active encouragement to social reforms like Abolition of Sati, Widow remarriage etc. In 2007, a group of retired British soldiers and civilians, some of them descendants of British soldiers who died in the conflict, attempted to visit the site of the Siege of Lucknow.
Some irregular units actively supported the Company: three Gurkha and five of six Sikh infantry units, and the six infantry and six cavalry units of the recently raised Punjab Irregular Force. The British were unnerved by the strong Hindu-Muslim unity displayed during the mutiny of 1857 and they were determined to break it at any cost. This angered both the Hindus and the Muslims as it hurt their religious sentiments. They were intolerant towards Hinduism and Islam and openly critical of these religions. It included not only the present-day Indian and Pakistani Punjabi regions but also the North West Frontier districts bordering Afghanistan Much of the region had been the , ruled by until his death in 1839.
Revolt of 1857 is known as the biggest revolt by Indians against the foreigners, forcing them to leave our motherland. All the city's people found within the walls of the city of Delhi when our troops entered were bayoneted on the spot, and the number was considerable, as you may suppose, when I tell you that in some houses forty and fifty people were hiding. A History of Modern India, 1480—1950. He functioned as the Governor-General of India from 1848-1856. The peasants suffered due to high revenue demands and the strict revenue collection policy.
The labourer had taunted the sepoy that by biting the cartridge, he had himself lost caste, although at this time such cartridges had been issued only at Meerut and not at Dum Dum. . He refused to use the cartridges and was subsequently hanged. Towards the end rebel cavalry rode into the water to finish off any survivors. Some British histories allow that it might well have been the result of accident or error; someone accidentally or maliciously fired a shot, the panic-stricken British opened fire, and it became impossible to stop the massacre. Many Muslims, including Sunni and Shia ulema, collaborated with the British.
To operate these rifles the cover of the cartridges had to be torn with the teeth to load the cartridge into the rifle. In 1856, a new Enlistment Act was introduced by the Company, which in theory made every unit in the Bengal Army liable to service overseas. Overall five men and two hundred and six women and children were confined in The Bibigarh for about two weeks. Historians have given many reasons for this act of cruelty. Henry Lawrence, the British resident was killed at Lucknow. This rumour sparked off fire of discontent against the British in the form of the revolt.
The Company forces captured the city, but the Rani fled in disguise. The British looked for increased recruitment in the Punjab for the Bengal army as a result of the apparent discontent that resulted in the Sepoy conflict. Nor did most Muslims share the rebels' hatred of the British, even as they deplored the more egregious excesses of colonial rule. Some detachments quickly joined the rebellion, while others held back but also refused to obey orders to take action against the rebels. They extended an active support to the British to suppress the revolt. The official Blue Books, East India Torture 1855—1857, laid before the during the sessions of 1856 and 1857, revealed that Company officers were allowed an extended series of appeals if convicted or accused of brutality or crimes against Indians.
Although some claimed the sepoys took no actual part in the killings themselves, they did not act to stop it and this was acknowledged by Captain Thompson after the British departed Cawnpore for a second time. A History of the Indian Mutiny, William Blackwood and Sons, London, 1904. Civilians, nobility and other dignitaries took an oath of allegiance. Thousands of local villagers welcomed him as a liberator, freeing them from rebel occupation. Effects of 1857 Revolt on Administrative Policies of the British Policy of Divide and Rule In the first half of the 19th Century, the British had made half-hearted attempts at social and administrative reforms in India.
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi 1833-1879 , the great Deobandi scholar, fought against the British. Some epicenters of the revolt were- Kanpur, Lucknow, Aligarh, Agra, Arrah, Delhi, and Jhansi. Albumen silver print by , 1858 Very soon after the events at , rebellion erupted in the state of also known as Oudh, in modern-day , which had been annexed barely a year before. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This was objectionable to the Hindus and Muslims alike. New Age International P Ltd.