This is lower than the degree of cost recovery achieved in 2010, when the recovery of operation and maintenance costs, excluding depreciation, through operating revenues was 95% for water supply and sanitation, ranging from 31% in Sinai to 134% in Beheira. It is envisaged to establish Affiliated Companies in all governorates, bringing the total number of Affiliated Companies to 28. More to Explore Country: Egypt Location: Egypt is located in northern Africa. The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency is responsible for environmental affairs and the assessment and monitoring of water use. The lead advisor for the structuring of the transaction was the of the World Bank Group.
Environmental bias is shown towards cities over villages, coastal areas over southern ones, and rich ones over the poor, Abu Bakr stresses. Drinking water shortages have left parts of Egypt going thirsty for up to two weeks in the run-up to Ramadan, with popular frustration over the failure of authorities to tackle the crisis spilling onto the streets. As of 2012, the Netherlands was in the process of phasing out its assistance to the water and sanitation sector. With the passing of the reforms, tariffs in Greater Cairo were increased from an extremely low base level by 100% as a signal to donors that the reforms were serious. The treated water is discharged in the Barakat drain and then 50 km downstream into the Nile River. At that time, the Alexandria Water Company was the only water company in Egypt to cover its operating costs.
However, the other problems still largely prevail more than three decades later despite two sector reforms carried out in 1981 and 2004. These civilians are usually poor and inhabit slums. Rural water supply was mostly through standpipes that provided water for free. Tariffs and other prices Tariff level. In most homes in Saft El-Laban, it is the women who are solely responsibility for housework.
To make matters worse, when people illegally connect their homes to makeshift pipelines, these pipes tend to break and allow precious water to leak into the ground. A contract for the expansion of the plant to 2. However, due to time and staffing constraints such corrections will not be made across the board or on a regular basis. The main source of fresh water in Egypt is the Nile River. Two decades later only three such companies were created.
However, the rising subsidy bill compelled the government to approve tariff increases in 2017. In July, Saft El-Laban's popular committee — a league of citizens formed during 18-day uprising against Hosni Mubarak — occupied the government building and insisted they would stay until their water problem was solved. However, the water concession law was never passed. A decree for the creation of a regulatory agency was also circulated. Sewerage is charged as a 63% surcharge to the water bill. In certain areas they were raised after the reforms of 2005, and again in 2017.
In some slums the majority of residents does not have legal access to water, and most people get water from tankers or water points. Institute of Environmental Studies and Research:, Eleventh International Water Technology Conference 2007 , Sharm el-Sheikh, p. Egypt has been forced to recognise a new reality — it has to negotiate with Addis Ababa as an equal. The existing 7 water and wastewater companies 2 in Cairo, 2 in Alexandria, and the 3 in the Nile Delta as well as the existing 7 Public Economic Authorities were all transformed into Affiliated Companies of the Holding Company. Cost recovery and subsidies The Egyptian government highly subsidizes the sector. Furthermore, the Holding Company established a performance benchmarking system including bonus payments that are paid to companies that improve their performance. Economic opening and the arrival of foreign aid in the 1970s With the economic opening of Egypt under the government of Anwar Sadat in the 1970s Infitah substantial foreign aid arrived.
. My own father opposed switching from our old ways, but when he saw the savings he was convinced, said Swelam. The length of the water distribution networks was 107,000 km and the length of the wastewater collection network was 29,000 km. Thus sewage leaks out and contaminates the surrounding streets, canals, and groundwater. They employed 98,500 staff in 2008 for 9. By late May, the dam was already halfway towards completion.
It is envisaged to establish Affiliated Companies in all governorates, bringing the total number of Affiliated Companies to 28. When it comes to the distribution of water, the differences between communities are stark. This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring. Infrastructure continued to fall into disrepair, while the entities in charge of water supply and sewerage systems ran large deficits that were only partly covered through subsidies. Amid the security vacuum that emerged following the revolution, thousands of residents in areas on the peripheries of Cairo and other cities began illegally constructing buildings and linking them up to the official government water supply. There was no sewerage and no system to dispose greywater.