It is also less prone to misunderstandings due to cultural subtleties than, say, Japanese, which is almost impossible to simultaneously translate for that reason. Today the best known is Esperanto, a deliberately simplified language, with just 16 rules, no definite articles, no irregular endings and no illogical spellings. Much more is involved than that. In these countries, children of native speakers learn English from their parents, and local people who speak other languages or new immigrants learn English to communicate in their neighbourhoods and workplaces. This may strike some as a ponderous process, but surely it would be less complicated than acquiring a creditable French accent the old-fashioned way. But the future evolution of the language, scholars say, is more likely to belong to the broken-English speakers of far-off lands.
English has reached high status world-wide because of several factors; as the mother tongue of millions of people all over the world, as the language that millions of children learn at school and the language that is used in international relations, for global communication and as the major media language. Historically the -s possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the of possessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. Consider, for instance, the side effects that the breakup of the Soviet Union has had on the use of the Russian language. Varieties of English around the World. For us to be able to effectively communicate, especially within fields such as international trade and economics, as well as diplomacy, a common working language is a key.
Discourse level syntax While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a structure, where the known information topic precedes the new information comment. Globalization is bound to happen and if ever any country like China became the global superpower in the future, will Mandarin the language of China get the same status as of English? In this seminar paper we focus on development of English language. However, in places including the Caucasus, Russian continues to be valued as a lingua franca, and fluency in it remains a hallmark of an educated person. The teaching of English has become a multibillion-dollar industry, and according to Graddol, nearly one-third of the world's population will soon be studying English. Firstly, sitting in front of me I have a copy of the celebrated book. Residents in the and émigrés from the Côte d'Ivoire, for instance, can browse the periodicals, and even listen to the radio stations, of their homelands -- much as American expatriates anywhere with an Internet connection can check the Web sites for , , , and their hometown papers and radio stations.
Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean 2002. Trask, Larry; Trask, Robert Lawrence January 2010. The increased use of the English language globally has had an effect on other languages, leading to some English words being assimilated into the vocabularies of other languages. In some cases older forms were retained — the way most Americans pronounce the sound after a vowel in words like star t, no rth, nu rse and lette r is probably very similar to pronunciation in 17th century England. It has become the lingua franca of science.
The difference in strategy and philosophy of Johnson and Webster are largely responsible for the main division in English spelling that exists today. Then, too, speech-to-writing and writing-to-speech programs may materialize on the Internet, much as the translation programs have done. The standard English of the inner-circle countries is often taken as a norm for use of English in the outer-circle countries. They may or may not have been asked in a national census or other poll about their competence in English or other languages; they may or may not have had any formal schooling in English; their assessment of their ability to speak English may or may not be accurate. Grammar Main article: As is typical of an Indo-European language, English follows. Australian and New Zealand English are each other's closest relatives with few differentiating characteristics, followed by and the English of southeastern England, all of which have similarly non-rhotic accents, aside from some accents in the of New Zealand. Part of this process to establish the power and influence of these local languages was the effort to produce standardised forms for them, so that teachers, merchants, lawyers, ministers of religion and politicians could write to and for each other in ways that were instantly comprehensible.
Many users of English in the expanding circle use it to communicate with other people from the expanding circle, so that interaction with native speakers of English plays no part in their decision to use English. We can't count on having much more around the world than a very basic ability to communicate. To begin with, the academic curriculum in schools and colleges across the world has made English as their mandatory language. The use of progressive forms in -ing, appears to be spreading to new constructions, and forms such as had been being built are becoming more common. And if something as earthshaking as the Internet had been developed in, say, Japan, perhaps English would not now be dominant to the extent that it is. Technology has much to teach us too.
Both standard and non-standard varieties of English can include both formal or informal styles, distinguished by word choice and syntax and use both technical and non-technical registers. Future First person I will run Second person You will run Third person John will run Further aspectual distinctions are encoded by the use of auxiliary verbs, primarily have and be, which encode the contrast between a perfect and non-perfect past tense I have run vs. In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. Archived from on 15 May 2013. The peoples of the countries where Latin was being used, spoke their own languages and dialects.
Yes, I did: in fact, The Atlantic published an article about machine translation not long ago see by Stephen Budiansky, in the December, 1998, issue. Present Preterite First person I run I ran Second person You run You ran Third person John runs John ran English does not have a morphologised future tense. Obsah 1 Language ,, Language is the basic means of human communication and as such it has an important social function. English also has a rich set of auxiliary verbs, such as have and do, expressing the categories of mood and aspect. Over half of these words are nouns, a quarter adjectives, and a seventh verbs. The influence of any language is a combination of three main things: the number of countries using it as their first language or mother-tongue, the number of countries adopting it as their official language, and the number of countries teaching it as their foreign language of choice in schools. In Asia alone, an estimated 350 million people speak English, about the same as the combined English-speaking populations of Britain, the United States and Canada.
In the Middle Ages, Latin seemed forever set as the language of education and culture, as did French in the 18th Century. Current versions of that and several other voice-recognition programs are reported to render speech into writing with 98 percent accuracy -- not a rate that detail-oriented people are likely to find reassuring getting two words wrong per hundred can add up , but certainly a rate that allows a user to get a point across. A 2006 report by the British Council suggests that the number of people learning English is likely to continue to increase over the next 10-15 years, peaking at around 2 billion, after which a decline is predicted. English is the only Global Language and other languages cannot compete with it. Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes. Dialects, accents, and varieties Main articles: , , and Dialectologists identify many , which usually refer to regional varieties that differ from each other in terms of patterns of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation.
A more difficult problem is that of raising the awareness of native speakers. Other adjectives have comparatives formed by , with the adverb more marking the comparative, and most marking the superlative: happier or more happy, the happiest or most happy. Many varieties also use a near future constructed with the phrasal verb be going to. There is great controversy circumventing this view. Archived from on 6 November 2015. Once these came to be written down, more and more people started to ask their churches and religious authorities to speak, write and deliver some, most, or all religion in those local languages.