The term Southern Slav most commonly refers to current geographic distribution without reference to the genetic makeup of the people who inhabit the southern part of the Balkans. By this time, it is thought that the proto-languages of all of the major Indo-European branches had developed, and that Proto-Indo-European itself was either moribund or extinct. Markey, Germanic and Its Dialects 1977 ; H. Furthermore, German—together with its sister languages Yiddish and Swiss German, Austrian German, and Luxemburg German—is traditionally called a High Germanic Language in opposition to its other sister languages English, Dutch, Afrikaans, traditionally called Low Germanic. These languages are all derived from Latin. These features are believed to be innovations that took place in , a descendant of Proto-Indo-European that was the source of all Germanic languages.
It will probably be easier to begin with the Western languages as they use the Latin alphabet. Under the Soviets the Moldavians had to use the Cyrillic alphabet. The second year German course focuses on literature and cultural literacy alongside a broadening of vocabulary, a development of oral, listening, and written competence, as well as grammatical accuracy. To those who want to correct population figures, I hope you yourself took into account all the babies born in the last 24 hours or your numbers would be inaccurate also. In addition to these main groups, there are fragmentary records of other Indo-European languages. Like Dutch, there are two genders some dialects of Norwegian have three , but verbs only change for tense and not person and word order is much like English. Tocharian is classified as two dialects, East Tocharian or Turfan and West Tocharian or Kuchean.
Beginning in the first century the Herminones moved from the lower and middle Elbe to southern Germany. Due to the influence of early Christian missionaries, the vast majority of the Celtic and Germanic languages use the Latin Alphabet. Slavic Languages The Slavic languages are spoken in Eastern Europe and Russia and are the harder of the three language groups analyzed to learn. German has a system of four cases and three genders for its nouns. Nouns have 7 cases and the past tense of verbs take an E prefix like Greek. For instance, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Armenian have extremely rich morphologies. In the list of South Slavic languages, Bulgarian is omitted.
French and Italian share 89% lexical similarity, as do Spanish and Portuguese. The Languages of Africa 2nd ed. When you learn Dutch, you will also be able to communicate with those who speak Afrikaans in South Africa, Flemish speakers in northern Belgium and even some Indonesians who have learned Dutch as a result of centuries of colonial rule. The German Language Program We offer 3 years of German language study: First year elementary German 1-3 ; second-year intermediate German 4-5 ; and third-year advanced German conversation and composition. And Italian is spoken also in the Vatican City, Southern Switzerland, the Repubblica di San Marino, Slovenian Istria and Istria County… 1. Prussian is an extinct language from this branch The Hellenic Branch The only extant language in this branch is Modern Greek. French has many Germanic and Celtic influences.
English has no genders or noun cases except for changes among a few personal pronouns. Today, Germanic languages use the standard 26-letter Latin alphabet expanded to include extra letters to represent vowel sounds. Languages can therefore be organized into family trees. The latter term is older. Grammar All Germanic languages are synthetic, i. It is widely accepted that, following the domestication of the horse c.
It then split into different branches which, in turn, split into different languages in the subsequent millennia. Word order is generally subject-verb-object except when the object is a pronoun, then the pronoun precedes the verb. If you're interested in learning Slavic languages, Polish, Serbian, Croatian and Russian are the most useful. The Slavs experienced a great medieval expansion, fracturing into three main branches: East Slavic far eastern Europe , West Slavic near eastern Europe , and South Slavic Balkans. An example in English would be the forms: lady, lady's, ladies and ladies'.
The people migrated across to the British Isles over 2000 years ago. It is thought that the runes were based on an related alphabet, adapted to represent the sounds of Germanic languages and styled to allow carving on wood, stone, and metal. Later, when the Germanic speaking Anglo Saxons arrived, the Celtic speakers were pushed into Wales Welsh , Ireland Irish Gaelic and Scotland Scottish Gaelic. The Greek Alphabet is still used in science and mathematics. Many of the older well-documented languages, such as Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, have rich morphologies with clearly marked gender and number, as well as elaborately marked case systems for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.
The West Germanic dialects not affected by the second shift were the Low German dialects of the lowlands, from which Dutch and English evolved. Galician is a Portuguese dialect with Celtic influences spoken in the north west of Spain. All of these languages derive from Latin, and the five national standard languages that are recognized include French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian. The Celtic Branch This is now the smallest branch. Thank you for your comments.
The North Germanic languages, also called Scandinavian languages or Norse, include Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish. Since many sources say the Hannover dialect is the closest to Hoch Deutsch or standard German. Swedish and Norwegian are tonal lanugages, meaning the accent on a syllable can distinguish meaning between words, though tones in Norwegian are easier to master. The examples below show how this method actually works with some Indo-European languages. Consisting of a regular shifting of consonants in groups, the sound shift had already occurred by the time adequate records of the various Germanic languages began to be made in the 7th to 9th cent. In addition, Russian is spoken in Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, and the U. I am betting this gets addressed much later, I am just getting into this.