Intelligence was crucial in this effort, at least in the political sense. To them he stood up to the senate. In this lesson, you'll learn about the history of Rome and Egypt and people who were involved with Cleopatra and Antony, like Julius Caesar and Octavian. In 83 bce returned to Italy from the East and led the successful counter-revolution of 83—82 bce; Sulla then ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia. The majority of the cavalry were commanded by his ally, King Bogud of Mauritania in North Africa. When Caesar followed, he discovered the Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra, and fell in love with her. His creditors did not let him leave Rome until Crassus had gone bail for a quarter of his debts; but a military expedition beyond the northwest frontier of his province enabled Caesar to win loot for himself as well as for his soldiers, with a balance left over for the treasury.
Pompey assembled his troops into nine legions, and could count on two additional legions from Syria, led by Metellus Scipio. Still unsure whether to advance, a man of extraordinary height and beauty appeared, clearly sent by the gods. Pompeian Army Pompey the Younger had at his command thirteen legions, 6000 light infantryman — possibly local Hispanic tribesmen — and about 6000 horsemen, for a total of about 70,000 men. Whatever the supposed ideological issues, the civil war was largely about dynastic power, and Cnaeus had become head of his dynasty. Before Caesar had even left Rome to take up his duties in Gaul, he received word that the Helvetii tribe had begun migrating west toward the Atlantic coast, burning their villages behind them. Octavian Antony's wife died soon after Antony met Cleopatra, but Antony couldn't marry Cleopatra since she wasn't a Roman citizen.
The fighting began when another Gallic tribe, the Carnutes, slaughtered a group of Romans who had settled in what they considered their territory. He sent his cavalry to delay the enemy and placed four legions in the traditional Roman three-line formation partway up the hill. Marc Antony Meanwhile, Pompey was in Greece, and by drawing upon the resources of the eastern and some client kings, he managed to raise an army of nine legions and a fleet of 300 ships, commanded by Bibulus see. According to Dio, he indeed would have had he adopted a more active policy. After just three months in power, he was defeated and displaced by Vittelius, a military governor who had been hailed as emperor by his men. This left Caesar seriously deficient in sea craft to carry over the remainder of his force.
As a result Octavian became the sole power in Rome and would soon become Rome's first Emperor. Pompey had the upper hand and knew it, seeing no need to risk his advantage in manpower and supply in a series of struggles outside his lines. . Also, each army's wings were likely protected by cavalry. Pompey kept his forces lined up on the slopes of Mount Dogantzes, hoping that Caesar would be foolish enough to advance uphill. The subsequent partial recuperation of the Greco-Roman world under the principate suggests, however, that Caesarism was the lesser evil. That same year, Caesar launched an amphibious campaign that took his forces to Britain.
The insisted on standing siege in their town Avaricum Bourges , and Vercingetorix was unable to save it from being taken by storm within one month. The first major controversy came in A. Caesar was right to be concerned. A crucial turning point came at 48 B. It turned out differently, because Caesar was in fact furious that he was not given the chance to pardon his eternal rival Pompey.
Over the course of several months they were joined by other Optimates units that survived Thapsus. Aside from securing the treasury for his own war efforts, an incredible total of 15,000 bars of gold, 30,000 bars of silver and 30 million sesterces which the Republicans had neglected to secure in their haste to leave, Caesar spent less than a week in the eternal city. His primary antagonist was Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, aka Pompey the Great. Caesar himself initiated a noncontroversial and much-needed act for punishing misconduct by governors of provinces. Here are some of the major battles and wars that the Romans fought. He also needed to go to Rome to settle a situation that was certainly bordering on riotous. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason, and ordered him to disband his army and return to Rome.
Also like Brutus, he became disillusioned when Caesar clung to power. At the Battle of Pharsalus pronounced far-sa-loose , Caesar managed to defeat the larger army of Pompey. This was only a part of what he did to resettle his discharged soldiers and the urban of Rome. For the past several days, Pompey had brought his more numerous troops to the field, and Caesar had formed his smaller army against them. In December, when the plebeian leader Curio persuaded the Senate to vote on the proposal for Caesar and Pompey to lay down their arms at the same time, 370 senators voted for it and just 22 against. He did not succeed, however.
Exploratores operated farther forward of an army than skirmishers, and were also involved in gaining advance intelligence. Caesar then ordered the construction of a second line of fortifications facing outward contravallation , enclosing his army between it and the inner set of fortifications. The motion was vetoed by Mark Antony, the newly appointed plebeian tribune and crucial ally of Caesar who would prove to play a fateful role in the last stages of his life. The defeated Pompey fled to Egypt, hoping to receive either support or asylum from the ruling Ptolomies, descendents of one of Alexander the Great's generals. While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, Pompey served as both consul of Rome and governor of Spain. These laws were duly passed.
Civil Wars 51-47 Hermeskeil When was in Gaul and organized the conquered territories, Pompey and Crassus tried to enlarge their power too. At the same time he was overextending his own resources, leaving him vulnerable on his left wing. After the fighting was ended in Gaul, Caesar was obliged to stand down from his position as governor, disband his army, and so lose the immunity his official position had given him. It was evident that the misgovernment of the Roman state and the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility could not continue indefinitely and it was fairly clear that the most probable was some form of military backed by dispossessed Italian peasants who had turned to long-term military service. Caesar estimated his own losses at 200 troops, although that number seems improbably low.