The thigh bone femur is a long bone. In general, their size and shape is an indication of the forces exerted through the attachment to the bone. These salt crystals form when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combine to create hydroxyapatite, which incorporates other inorganic salts like magnesium hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate as it crystallizes, or calcifies, on the collagen fibers. Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food occurs within the digestive tract so that nutrients can be absorbed into the bloodstream for distribution to the tissues. The osteoblast is the bone cell responsible for forming new bone and is found in the growing portions of bone, including the periosteum and endosteum. The appendages are the , which contain approx.
Examples include protecting the brain , the sternum and ribs protecting the organs in the thorax , and the scapulae shoulder blades. There also are bands of fibrous —the and the —in relationship with the parts of the skeleton. The gonads secrete hormones and also produce gametes, being sperm and ova or eggs. As the blood passes through the marrow cavities, it is collected by veins, which then pass out of the bone through the foramina. The hydroxyapatite crystals give bones their hardness and strength, while the collagen fibers give them flexibility so that they are not brittle.
The lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic vessels, nodules, nodes and other lymphoid tissue as well as immune cells. The periosteum contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that nourish compact bone. If the outer layer of a cranial bone fractures, the brain is still protected by the intact inner layer. The trabeculae may appear to be a random network, but each trabecula forms along lines of stress to provide strength to the bone. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and develop into osteoblasts. This form of communication is usually slower and longer-lasting. A long bone is a category of bone classified mainly with respect to its shape, rather than its size.
Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts. It is a disorder of the bone remodeling process that begins with overactive osteoclasts. If osteoblasts and osteocytes are incapable of mitosis, then how are they replenished when old ones die? Blood vessels within the circulatory system include an arterial system and a venous system. This can be divided into two layers, an outer 'fibrous layer' containing mainly fibroblasts and an inner 'cambium layer' containing progenitor cells which develop into osteoblasts the cells responsible for bone formation. Production of Blood Cells The red bone marrow inside larger bones, such as the , is the site of production of. This is right next to the tibia.
Spongy Cancellous Bone Like compact bone, spongy bone, also known as cancellous bone, contains osteocytes housed in lacunae, but they are not arranged in concentric circles. For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs. This movement of material is known as diffusion. Each adjoins the frontal, the sphenoid, the temporal, and the occipital bones and its fellow of the opposite side. The answer lies in the properties of a third category of bone cells—the osteogenic cell.
Osteocytes maintain the mineral concentration of the matrix via the secretion of enzymes. Which of the following are incapable of undergoing mitosis? Still, most doctors feel that the benefits of bisphosphonates more than outweigh the risk; the medical professional has to weigh the benefits and risks on a case-by-case basis. Bone Markings Marking Description Example Articulations Where two bones meet Knee joint Head Prominent rounded surface Head of femur Facet Flat surface Vertebrae Condyle Rounded surface Occipital condyles Projections Raised markings Spinous process of the vertebrae Protuberance Protruding Chin Process Prominence feature Transverse process of vertebra Spine Sharp process Ischial spine Tubercle Small, rounded process Tubercle of humerus Tuberosity Rough surface Deltoid tuberosity Line Slight, elongated ridge Temporal lines of the parietal bones Crest Ridge Iliac crest Holes Holes and depressions Foramen holes through which blood vessels can pass through Fossa Elongated basin Mandibular fossa Fovea Small pit Fovea capitis on the head of the femur Sulcus Groove Sigmoid sulcus of the temporal bones Canal Passage in bone Auditory canal Fissure Slit through bone Auricular fissure Foramen Hole through bone Foramen magnum in the occipital bone Meatus Opening into canal External auditory meatus Sinus Air-filled space in bone Nasal sinus Bone Cells and Tissue Bone contains a relatively small number of cells entrenched in a matrix of collagen fibers that provide a surface for inorganic salt crystals to adhere. The medullary cavity has a delicate membranous lining called the endosteum. Inside this is the which has an inner core of bone marrow, it contains nutrients and help in formation of cells, made up of yellow marrow in the adult and red marrow in the child. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.
Which of the following occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis? The medullary cavity has a delicate membranous lining called the endosteum. The diaphysis or shaft of a long bone makes up most of the length of the bone. Still, most doctors feel that the benefits of bisphosphonates more than outweigh the risk; the medical professional has to weigh the benefits and risks on a case-by-case basis. The diaphysis takes the brunt of the force a long bone must support, and is made up primarily of compact bone -- a dense, strong bone composed of minerals, including calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, as hard as many types of rock. If the outer layer of a cranial bone fractures, the brain is still protected by the intact inner layer.
One way to communicate is through the nervous system, which is a fast and immediate type of communication. The diaphysis is composed of a thick layer of compact bone surrounding the medullary cavity. The walls of the diaphysis are composed of dense and hard compact bone. The diaphysis is the tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone. Tendons and ligaments also attach to bones at the periosteum. Perforating canals provide channels that allow the blood vessels that run through the central canals to connect to the blood vessels in the periosteum that surrounds the bone.