Elected censor in 199, Scipio became princeps senatus leader of the Senate till the end of his life. Reaction against his generous foreign policy—with possible clemency to Hannibal after Zama—and against his encouragement of Greek culture in Roman life led to his downfall amid personal and political rivalries. He was able to instil loyalty in others and was loyal himself to friends, officers, and men. Both his father and uncle were killed. But he notes that Scipio owed much of his success to the incompetence of his enemies and the superior quality of his troops and particularly faults him for failing to hold Hasdrubal Barca in Spain.
At this the Carthaginian government ordered Hannibal and Mago back to Africa to defend the city. From his headquarters at Tarraco Tarragona in 209, Scipio suddenly launched a combined military and naval assault on the enemy's headquarters at Carthago Nova, knowing that all three enemy armies in Spain were at least 10 days distant from the city. For the next few days the opponents sized each other up. The ancient descriptions of this battle are disputed by military analysts, however. Publius Cornelius Lentulus Scipio was a active during the. The legions had not even entered the battle. Cassius Dio All agree that he was an unusual person.
As a youth of 18 years, Scipio accompanied his father to Greece in 168 B. Scullard, Roman Politics 220-150 B. He retired into the country and ordered that his body might not be buried in his ungrateful city. Asked to produce the account books, Scipio Africanus tore them up before the eyes of the senators. But even so there is lots of argument. Again, in December, he saw defeat of the Roman army on the Trebia, under T.
In the first division he placed his light troops, bowmen, mounted archers, Arabs, and scythed-chariots. Scipio, meanwhile, had marched through Greece with an army composed of Glabrio's old army plus two legions from Italy. The Carthaginians arrived in Italy only to be destroyed by a Roman force led by the consul Nero. Now he had to force the issue in order to help Hannibal. Machiavelli contrasts the two in remarking that Hannibal's severity and cruelty brought the same results as Scipio's humane treatment of friend and foe.
But if you consider even that to be excessive, prepare for war, for you have found peace intolerable. But the second line refused to break formation, and as the Romans continued their advance, the Carthaginians began fighting each other. Scipio 14 the son of P. But Scipio is merely a foil for Hart in promoting his own favorite theories the strategy of the indirect approach. But Machiavelli points out that Scipio had trouble dealing with a mutiny in Spain due to his own excessive kindness to disciplined citizen soldiers, while Hannibal never had any mutiny even among mercenaries and allied troops of highly doubtful character. Polybius makes it seem the Scipio spread these ideas of his divinity himself, while disbelieving them.
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus d 154 , married Cornelia, daughter of 8, Augur in 204 - with Scipos in Asia in 190 - Tribune in 187 - Curule Aedile 182 - Praetor in Spain 180 - Propraetor 179-8, Consul Sardinia 177 - Censor 169 and Consul again 163, their sons are 19 and 20, and daughter Sempronia is wife of 12. His picture of Scipio is not very clear. The Greeks thought his luck a sign of favor by the divine goddess, Tyche. Polybius' sources besides the Scipio family and Laelius, were Greeks, on both the Roman and Carthaginian side. Polybius was anxious to refute this legend. Party rivalries and jealousies stirred up the opposition. In 190 Scipio was instrumental in obtaining for his brother Lucius, consul of the year, the command against Antiochus by offering to accompany him as legate on his campaign.
Gracchus was the son of the T. While with him during an engagement on the , the young Scipio made his first appearance in history. This grant by the people, to a man who had not been praetor or consul, of a military command outside Italy created an important constitutional precedent. Military career According to , Scipio served as a young military at the disastrous in 216. After a bitter political battle with jealous rivals, he secured permission to lead a Roman army into Africa and attack the base of Carthaginian power. However, he had not stopped there, but had continued on to an attack on the Roman Camp, which was successfully defended.
He was the son of Publius Cornelius Scipio, and from a very early age he considered himself to have divine inspiration. Scipio was in a difficult position on the coast awaiting his new Numidian allies, while Hannibal was in position to block their junction. Missing Hannibal at the Rhone by a day or two, P. For modern sources see: Adcock, F. Significance and influence A man of wide sympathies, cultured and magnanimous, Scipio easily won the friendship of such men as Philip, king of Macedonia, and the native princes of Spain and Africa, while he secured the devotion of his own troops. In 149 war was declared by Rome. However, in 211 both the elder Scipios were killed in battle in the Baetis River valley, being immediately replaced by C.