Montesquieu opposed the absolute monarchy of his home country and favored the English system as the best model of government. . This is essentially to protect and preserve the rights of man in some way which somehow preserves mans existence. The only way out of this situation, Hobbes said, was for individuals to create some supreme power to impose peace on everyone. The sovereign, created by the people, might be a person or a group.
This means that it is actually civilization that corrupted man and not his natural state. The war ended with the beheading of the king. From our nature came the interest of how we as humans interact with each other, through the development of our nature some have served and others had ruled. There can be no separation of powers, as Montesquieu proposed. Every person was free to do what he or she needed to do to survive.
Rousseau, Hobbes, and Locke begin with the conception of the individual, because in the natural state, they all believe that man is an independent character. To do such, a government will need to be put in place with the explicit consent of those governed. Placing all power in the hands of a king would mean more resolute and consistent exercise of political authority, Hobbes argued. In direct response to Rousseau, Wollstonecraft argues that educating women in the same fashion as men makes them better able to function in the roles of wife, mother and daughter. On the contrary, Locke, on the other hand, was an ardent supporter of democracy and constitutionalism and all these are not consistent with the absoluteness of power in the hands of a single man.
Therefore, all other powers or bodies are subordinate to the legislative authority. Needless to say that all these were related with the overall progress of individuals as important units of society. Hobbes proposed something that would meet the requirements to control a society that is naturally looking for their own survival. So far as the formation and day-to-day functioning of the state are concerned Locke has introduced the ideas of consent and majority decision. Civil society must be founded on reason, which women are as capable of as men given the proper opportunities and education.
It embodies a very high ideal. Rousseau made his sovereignty popular by introducing the concept that the general will is the determiner of everything. The non-fulfillment of these requirements would lead them to withdraw their obligation to the government. In the same chapter he has said that it is the duty of citizen to give consent to a law. Human Nature is referred to as the essential and immutable character of all human beings.
Through time people have always wondered what it is that makes us who we are. The right to property has forced individuals to move from a state of autarky to a state of mutual dependence. From the analysis of Hobbes it appears to us that he was thinking of a state which would be free from the authority and influence of the church. John Locke 1632-1704 , held a more positive view of human nature. Others may refer to it as the biological or genetic factor suggesting that there is an established and unchanging human core. He does not directly refer to this but we can form such an idea from his analysis. Moreover, laws are enacted to realize the welfare and preservation of the body-politic.
An absolute monarchy did not regard in those rights, so they could not protect them for the people in the society. But they thought that a sovereign with absolute power was the only remedy and thinking in this line people of state of nature thought it prudent to show unconditional obligation. The social contract theory was the creation of Hobbes who created the idea of a social contract theory, which Locke and Rousseau built upon. This has been created and developed by the human faculties. To bring people into harmony. Since these were their own creation they had no moral right to withdraw obligation from these conditions and rules.
Disclaimer: This answer only covers so much of the matter. Although Locke spoke out for freedom of thought, speech, and religion, he believed property to be the most important natural right. Votes should only be counted from those expressing the general will; those voting based on selfish interests should be discounted, although no practical way of knowing or enforcing this is described. Interpreters of Lockean thought system have argued that there was another contract between people and the government. A new age with fresh ideas was emerging—the European.