Taxes on income other than agricultural income. Sardar Swaran Singh Committee and the Forty-second amendment Soon after the declaration of National Emergency, the Congress party constituted a committee under the Chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh to study the question of amending the Constitution in the light of past experiences. In essence, the Supreme Court struck a balance between its authority to interpret the Constitution and Parliament's power to amend it. Criminal procedure, including all matters included in the Code of Criminal Procedure at the commencement of this Constitution. Thomas held that the power of judicial review is an essential feature. This schedule can also be amended by a simple majority of Parliament.
Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members 194 Powers, privileges, etc. Lotteries organized by the Government of India or the Government of a State. Regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court. Such orders and decrees which have the force of law, are later approved by the Parliament. In case of conflict, the law made by the union government shall have primacy over the state law. Industrial disputes concerning Union employees.
As such it must embody the national goals and sub serve their achievement. Regulation of mines and mineral development subject to the provisions of List I with respect to regulation and development under the control of the Union. State List contains 66 subjects which are under the exclusive authority of State governments; 3. It includes the power to be considered by both the central and state government. Many other articles and three other parts were added to it by subsequent constitutional amendments. The decorum in their Houses is exemplary. E Debates in the Constituent Assembly: The complexion of the Indian Constitution was to a great extent laid down in the debates and discussions held in the Constituent Assembly.
Recovery in a State of claims in respect of taxes and other public demands, including arrears of land-revenue and sums recoverable as such arrears, arising outside that State. It contains 18 subjects relate to municipalities, who have been given administrative powers. Article 13 2 provides for the protection of the fundamental rights of the citizen. The main subjects of the Union List are: Defense, Foreign Affairs, Currency and Coinage, War and Peace, Atomic Energy, National Resources, Railways, Post and Telegraph, Citizenship, Navigation and Shipping, Foreign Trade, Inter-State Trade and Commerce, Banking, Insurance, National Highways, Census, Election, Institutions of higher education and others. However no concerted efforts were made to pursue the case.
Audit of the accounts of the Union and of the States. But there was no unanimity of opinion about what appoints to that basic structure. Entry 36 omitted by the Constitution Seventh Amendment Act, 1956, w. This is an important lesson in Civics and Polity, and is useful for all competitive and recruitment exams. Police including railway and village police subject to the provisions of entry 2A of List I. It converted it into ordinary legal right.
Judicial over-activism of Indian Supreme Court is comparable with judicial despotism of American Supreme Court. Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways. Land, that is to say, right in or over land, land tenures including the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land; land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization. Cultural and Educational Rights 29 Protection of interests of minorities. Weights and measures except establishment of standards. This view held that the Constitution gives a place of permanence to the fundamental freedoms of the citizen.
Custody, management and disposal of property including agricultural land declared by law to be evacuee property. Courts of wards subject to the provisions of entry 34 of List I; encumbered and attached estates. Finally in 1978, Article 19f was omitted and Article 31 repealed by the Fortyfourthamendment. The Indian Parliament owes its existence to awritten Constitution that was put together by another sovereign body, namely, the Constituent Assembly. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporation, other than those specified in List I, and universities; unincorporated trading, literacy, scientific, religious and other societies and associations; co-operative societies.
Drugs and poisons, subject to the provisions of entry 59 of List I with respect to opium. Taxes on the consumption or sale of electricity. But in a unitary State there is only one government, namely the national government. This clearly reflects that the constitution has been gradually modified in order to adapt itself to the political exigencies and the aspiration to effect social and economic amelioration of Indian society from time to time. Drugs and poisons, subject to the provisions of entry 59 of List I with respect to opium.
This is a lengthy schedule which goes into the details of the administration in the Tribal Areas concerned. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities. . Ports other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports. The state governments alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the State List. Presently, it has 443 articles.
Impact of British Constitution: The British Imperialists ruled over India for over 200 years. The salaries and allowances of ministers out the legislators have been governed by the Acts of Parliament. Lighthouses, including lightships, beacons and other provisions for the safety of shipping and aircraft. Basic structure doctrine reaffirmed- the Minerva Mills and Waman Rao cases Within less than two years of the restoration of Parliament's amending powers to near absolute terms,the Forty-second amendment was challenged before the Supreme Court by the owners of MinervaMills Bangalore a sick industrial firm which was nationalised by the government in 1974. Money-lending and money-lenders; relief of agricultural indebtedness.