Pollution, erosion, desertification, increased rates of extinction and more can all be traced back to us. Extinction And Biodiversity Loss Deforestation has been the cause of a truly massive number of in modern times and historical times. Desertification Control Bulletin, 12, 1—11. In Kansas alone the wheat area increased from less than 2 million hectares in 1910 to almost 5 million in 1919. Grazing livestock, usually not left to wander, would eat the grass and would minimize any grass growth while grass left alone would eventually grow to cover its own growing buds, preventing them from photosynthesizing and killing the plant.
Through , farmers only speed up the process of desertification in exchange for poor quality crops with low economic value. All the rain in the world won't help infertile topsoil. More than 22 million metric tons of soil were stripped from grazing land within a twenty-four-hour period. Controversially, has claimed that the controlled movement of herds of livestock, mimicking herds of grazing wildlife, can reverse desertification. Unless climate change is slowed down, huge areas of land will become desert; some of those areas may even become uninhabitable as time goes on. Another issue is a lack of political will, and lack of funding to support and anti-desertification programs. World atlas of desertification 2nd ed.
The predictable effect of these practices is declining food production and an increase in the level of poverty. With a changing ecosystem, species must adapt to their new climate or migrate to a more favorable climate. Plants have been selected which suit the local habitat, act as windbreakers and curb desertification. Desertification is the process by which fertile land is transformed into desert as it becomes progressively drier and unable to support any plant growth for food production. As large populations often quickly use up all of the resources located near them, they almost always become dependent upon expansion in order to continue fueling their infrastructure — this continues until the reliance on distant, far-off resources becomes too burdensome and inefficient, and the civilization collapses or retracts.
Summary for Decision-makers is defined by the U. The organization was awarded for its efforts to prevent further desertification in Africa. Desertification has become a large global ecological and environment problem in the recent past. Predictably, this leads to mass migration from the region to more biologically productive areas, or to cities. Did you know that one of the most affected areas in the world is the Sahara Desert which is quickly expanding? Generally such periods see the disintegration of cultural values, complex economic systems, technological systems, complicated urban infrastructure, ethnic identities, and often of writing systems and languages as well.
Or, to put it in another way, desertification results in persistent degradation of dryland and fragile ecosystems due to man. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use. Desertification has played a significant role in human history, contributing to the collapse of several large empires, such as Carthage, Greece, and the Roman Empire, as well as causing displacement of local populations. Desertification affects topsoil, groundwater reserves, surface runoff, human, animal and plant populations. As soon as migrations are stopped and settlements imposed, such options are closed, and severe degradation occurs.
The Gobi Desert is growing at a rapid rate due to desertification and China has to plan quickly and carefully to prevent further loss. Once this top layer of soil is removed, the land will no longer be fertile and will be unable to support the growth of vegetation. Clearly, therefore, a combination of human activities e. Areas of grassland are disappearing fast in southern regions of the Gobi as the desert land continues to expand. The nature of Mediterranean Europe: An ecological history. The process happens due to a number of reasons, but much of the desertification that is occurring around the world today is caused by human activity on lands that are extremely vulnerable to overexploitation and improper agricultural methods. Deforestation occurs primarily as a result of: agriculture, fuel use and production firewood, charcoal, etc , timber harvesting, pasture-clearing for livestock animals, and expanding human settlements.
This is a big deal and simple steps can be made to lessen the damage. Most species are closely tied to their ecological niches, and to the wider environment that they live in. The fertile top layer of soil will also start to blow away because the roots of the plants that used to hold the soil in place are no longer there. Windbreaks are made from trees and bushes and are used to reduce and. Much of what remains of the infrastructure built by the Romans during this time lies in what is now desert, but was at the time highly fertile land that supported large populations. United States Department of Agriculture. By taking that critical look at desertification, we have the tools that we need in order to get through the processes effectively.
This plan was proposed in the late 1970s, and has become a major ecological engineering project that is not predicted to end until the year 2055. In short, as much irrigated ground cover as possible. Mass migration has throughout history been a destroyer of civilizations. The average annual total rainfall is about 931 mm with about 60 rainy days Source: Indian Meteorological Department. There are many different environment-friendly organizations which are working to increase awareness among people regarding the plantation of trees and its benefits. The root cause of desertification is poor soil conservation leading to soil degradation.
Water scarcity in drylands limits the production of wood, crops, forage and other services that ecosystems provide to our community. A review of desertification in Africa—water, vegetation and man. The spread of desertlike conditions is not, as popularly supposed, an advance over a broad front in the way that a wave overwhelms a beach. We have indeed responded in both ways you outline above — acceptance which often leads to collapse via the over-stressing of established infrastructure and systems as seen in Sweden , or the closing off of borders which almost invariably leads to war, insurgencies, and persistent endemic irregular warfare as seen in Croatia, Serbia, Hungary and others. It occupies the African area of the Sahara desert which is expanding further towards some parts of Libya. Livestock production is a contributing factor in species extinction, desertification, and habitat destruction. It occurs because dryland ecosystems, which cover over one third of the world's land area, are extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation and inappropriate land use.